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Cashew Apple Wine


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#1 romeo

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Posted 17 February 2006 - 06:30 AM

I would like to make wine from cashew apples, either red or yellow apples.
My first try, with a recipe published by the FAO, was a failure. The fermentation stopped at the third day, whereas the recipe mentions a fermentation period of 14 days.

I you have succeeded in making cashew apple wine, I would like to hear from you.

Thanks

Romeo Cormier
Oxfam Volunteer
Benin
West Africa

#2 Winni

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Posted 17 February 2006 - 03:20 PM

how are they different than "normal" apples?

Fermentation might stop after 3-4 days for many reasons (temperature, acid, etc). I would follow one of the recipes on the Forum (the recipe Book download is very nice!).

I would make a mix of red, yellow Apples and another kind. A mix of apples for apple wine is best.

#3 croat

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Posted 17 February 2006 - 10:22 PM



http://www.hort.purd...shew_apple.html

Actually, this is an animal all to itself. The Cashew Apple is actually the recepticle flesh to the Cashew nut. When ripe both the attached Apple/Nut fall to the ground and are harvested. The Cashew Apple was normally eaten and the nut discarded as it is a major PITA to remove from the resin laden shell (similar to the American Black Walnut).

Interesting indeed.

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#4 LeChaim

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Posted 18 February 2006 - 01:53 PM

I used to drink cashew apple juice in Brazil (suco de caju). It has, if I recall correctly, a sweet/sour taste, very pleasant. You can get it fresh-squeezed or in concentrate form, and it's popular with people of all ages.

Romeo, I don't see why cashew apple juice shouldn't ferment like any other juice. It would probably make a very nice wine. As Winni said, maybe your fermentation finished, that is, the yeast has converted all the sugar it can into alcohol. This can certainly happen in three days if you're in a hot climate. It takes some experience, using recipes created in other countries; eventually you understand how your unique circumstances affect your brewing and adjust accordingly.

The best way we can help you is seeing your recipe and method. Please post it, and we'll see what we can do! In the meantime, how does the must taste (and make you feel tongue.gif )?

Miriam
My blog, Israeli Kitchen: http://www.mimi54.wordpress.com

#5 ms.spain

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Posted 18 February 2006 - 10:28 PM

In May of last year, my parents went on a cruise to Cozumel and Belize City, Belize. They tried some wine down there.When told what kind of wine it was by the local man who let them taste the wine, my father thought he said "passion fruit wine."(his accent was so thick, he was difficult to understand).
My father asked him again, and the local man said,"cashew fruit wine".He then explained about the fruit surrounding the cashew nut, and that they were now making wine from this fruit.
My father said it was very good- even bought a bottle down there.When he reported the purchase on the ship, they gave him a receipt and told him the wine would be delivered to his room the night before they left the ship in port at Galveston.They accidently delivered the bottle of wine to the wrong room, and they drank it!! wacko.gif
Even though I didn't get to try this wine, my father raved about it.
Welcome to the forum! wave.gif
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#6 romeo

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Posted 19 February 2006 - 05:06 AM

QUOTE (LeChaim @ Feb 18 2006, 09:25 PM)
I used to drink cashew apple juice in Brazil (suco de caju). It has, if I recall correctly, a sweet/sour taste, very pleasant. You can get it fresh-squeezed or in concentrate form, and it's popular with people of all ages.

Romeo, I don't see why cashew apple juice shouldn't ferment like any other juice. It would probably make a very nice wine. As Winni said, maybe your fermentation finished, that is, the yeast has converted all the sugar it can into alcohol. This can certainly happen in three days if you're in a hot climate. It takes some experience, using recipes created in other countries; eventually you understand how your unique circumstances affect your brewing and adjust accordingly.

The best way we can help you is seeing your recipe and method. Please post it, and we'll see what we can do! In the meantime, how does the must taste (and make you feel  tongue.gif )?

Miriam



Miriam,

Thank you for the reply regarding cashew apple wine.
I'm into my second try, as of yesterday.

The failure in the first try was probably due to the fact that I did not dissolve the dry yeast (LALVIN K1-V1116 - Montpellier) in warm water at the onset. I had simply sprinkled the powder over the cashew apple juice. (It resembles grapefruit juice in color).

I have attached the FAO recipe, for your comments.
Hope to hear from you, and others who are curious or knowledgeable on this fruit.

If a small country like Benin, West Africa, produces 250,000 tonnes of cashew apples each year (the apple weighs 5 times its raw nut), imagine the tonnage of cashew apples produced each year in India, Brazil, Vietnam, Mozambique, Nigeria and 20 other producing countries. Except India and Brazil, where some wine is produced, all others simply let the apples rot on the ground. What a waste of resource.

Roméo Cormier
Oxfam Volunteer
Benin, West Africa

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#7 LeChaim

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Posted 19 February 2006 - 12:59 PM

Romeo, that was pretty interesting. I had not heard of using fuller's earth to filter must. And I wouldn't pasteurize the wine myself, although maybe conditions in Benin warrant such a step.

Keep notes on ingredients and the steps you took making the wine, with the dates, and you'll have a winelog to consult (and share with us). Do you have a hydrometer? Wine has of course been made zillions of times without a hydrometer, but if you measure the rate that the sugar is being consumed, you'll know what's happening with the alcohol content of the must, and if the yeast is played out. In other words, you'll be more in control of the must and know what to expect from the final product.

Did you throw out the first batch? I have the feeling it might have been OK.

Last question: what equipment are you using?

You haven't indicated if you're a wine newbie or have experience, but in the latter case, there's no better winemaking education online than Jack Keller's site,here

Miriam

Romeo, on second thought, this is the last question: do people make wine with honey where you are, and if so, how do they do it?
My blog, Israeli Kitchen: http://www.mimi54.wordpress.com

#8 romeo

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Posted 20 February 2006 - 03:25 PM

QUOTE (LeChaim @ Feb 19 2006, 08:31 PM)
Romeo, that was pretty interesting. I had not heard of using fuller's earth to filter must. And I wouldn't pasteurize the wine myself, although maybe conditions in Benin warrant such a step.

Keep notes on ingredients and the steps you took making the wine, with the dates, and you'll have a winelog to consult (and share with us). Do you have a hydrometer? Wine has of course been made zillions of times without a hydrometer, but if you measure the rate that the sugar is being consumed, you'll know what's happening with the alcohol content of the must, and if the yeast is played out. In other words, you'll be more in control of the must and know what to expect from the final product.

Did you throw out the first batch? I have the feeling it might have been OK. 

Last question: what equipment are you using?

You haven't indicated if you're a wine newbie or have experience, but in the latter case, there's no better winemaking education online than Jack Keller's site,here

Miriam

Romeo, on second thought, this is the last question: do people make wine with honey where you are, and if so, how do they do it?



Miriam,

I pasteurised the juice, like the FAO recipe suggests, and was intending to pasteurise the wine, once it has formed. Why would you hesitate to do that?

The fuller's earth, I don't have. I plan to use gelatine and/or pectinex to produce a clear wine.

Yes, I do have a hydrometer, but my "carboy" is too shallow for me to use it. All I have is 20 litre Italian wine bottles. I have an airlock, which I use right now, during fermentation. The second bottle, a 10-litre bottle doesn't have an airlock. Should I be using one, at any rate?

I have one previous experience in wine making - in Canada, about 10 years ago. In Benin, West Africa, there is only one place that produced cashew apple wine - a religious monastery. The nuns were taught by an Indian technician. My aim is to show the cashew nut producer cooperative that the wine can be more lucrative than the raw nut, which they sell to Indians, by the way.

I did throw away the first batch. I pressed the apple and filtered the juice. There is no must in my italian bottle "carboy".

Fermentation is very active, on day 3. All is well, so far. I am making notes.

Thank you for your comments and advice.

Roméo

#9 LeChaim

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Posted 23 February 2006 - 12:56 AM

Romeo,

I should think that pasteurizing the wine will change its taste. However, if the weather is hot, dry, and dusty, and if sanitation is poor, pasteurizing the juice and the finished wine may be a good idea after all.

I appreciate that as a volunteer working in a thirld-world country, your access to modern equipment may be limited; also you want to present the cooperative with a product that won't require lots of imported things and be costly to manufacture. Still, to create a consistently viable wine, you will need to monitor changes with a hydrometer, and observe strict sanitation. Important question: do you have sulfite? If not, what are you using for sanitizing?

An improvised hydrometer can be made out of a white-glass wine bottle. You need something tall that will contain enough must to float the hydrometer. Just make sure the bottle and hydrometer are santized.

Yes, the must, once transferred out of the primary bucket, should be under airlock. This will allow gases to escape the must, but not allow airborne bacteria and dust in to enter and contaminate it. An improvised airlock is a blow-off tube, where you have a bucket with a tight-fitting lid. A hole just big enough to admit a length of plastic tubing is drilled in the lid. One end of the tube goes in the must, and the outside end is inserted into a jar filled with water and sulfite. The hole in the lid must be filled in around the edges of the tube to be airtight; plastic wrap will do if you have it. Everything has to be sanitized. Now, I'm talking like a big expert, but I've never made or used such a system myself: you can get a better idea by searching for "blow-off tube" online (and probably get a picture or drawing too).

Your idea is admirable, and there's no reason why it shouldn't succeed. Keep experimenting and trying; it takes a few batches till the newbie makes a good wine. At least, my own first wines were nothing to brag about (although we drank them just the same).

And please do post your notes. The more information you give us here on the forum, the more we can help you.

Miriam
My blog, Israeli Kitchen: http://www.mimi54.wordpress.com

#10 LeChaim

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Posted 23 February 2006 - 04:26 AM

P.S.

It's really essential to become as educated as possible in brewing, especially as you'll presumably be leaving Benin eventually, first passing your brewing skills on to other people. I urge you to haunt Jack Keller's site, and if possible to print out his articles on beginning and advanced winemaking. This forum of course is also a great resource - post your questions, one of us will answer!

Lastly, for the newbie brewer, C.J.J. Berry's "First Steps in Winemaking" is the most useful book IMO. If you can't print the articles, ask someone back home to, and mail them. And Amazon.com has the book - they ship to most places, although I don't know about West Africa. A friend could mail a copy from home if they don't. I've had to work that way myself, asking a friend in England to send me a book that wouldn't ship from the States.

Miriam
My blog, Israeli Kitchen: http://www.mimi54.wordpress.com

#11 romeo

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Posted 26 February 2006 - 05:03 AM

QUOTE (LeChaim @ Feb 23 2006, 11:58 AM)
P.S.

It's really essential to become as educated as possible in brewing, especially as you'll presumably be leaving Benin eventually, first passing your brewing skills on to other people. I urge you to haunt Jack Keller's site, and if possible to print out his articles on beginning and advanced winemaking. This forum of course is also a great resource - post your questions, one of us will answer!

Lastly, for the newbie brewer, C.J.J. Berry's "First Steps in Winemaking" is the most useful book IMO. If you can't print the articles, ask someone back home to, and mail them.  And Amazon.com has the book - they ship to most places, although I don't know about West Africa. A friend could mail a copy from home if they don't. I've had to work that way myself, asking a friend in England to send me a book that wouldn't ship from the States.

Miriam



Miriam,

Thanks for your continued interest in my experiments.
A few words on the materials, equipment being used, and the process so far.
I sanitize everthing I use and touch with a sanitizing solution: Chlori-Clean, which I bought in Montreal.
I pressed the cashew apples and filtered the juice with a sieve, to obtain a cleaner juice.
I then pasteurized the juice in a stainless steel casserole, reaching 85 degrees Celcius.
After pasteurization, I cooled the juice to room temperature - 30C - and added potassium metabisulphite to destroy any wild yeast and bacteria which could still be active.
At this point, I had 13 litres of juice, and the juice was transfered into one 10-litre Italian wine bottle, and one 5-litre Italian wine bottle, so that each bottle would be no more than 80% full.
With the juice in the bottles, I then poured in the wine yeast - Lalvin K1-V1116, which I has previously dissolved into warm water for 15 minutes, according to instructions on the yeast package.
I stirred the bottles vigorously to get the yeast in motion in the bottles and laid the bottles to rest in a bedroom (where else?).
I put an airlock on the 10-litre bottle, but on the 5-litre bottle, I used plastic wrap to cover the neck and I punched a few holes with a needle and covered the plastic with a cleanex tissue to prevent dust from entering the bottle.
Fermentation was quite active for 2 days +. Now, some 7 days into fermentation, the sediments measure 1cm at the bottom, the fermentation activity has reduced to nearly zero, although I get a rapid twirl on the small plastic lid which covers the airlock when I vibrate the 10-litre bottle, which indicates to me that there is pressure inside the bottle seeking to evacuate the gas inside.

I remain confident at this time that I have cashew apple wine in progress, and that all is well.

Regarding your other questions:
There is no wine being produced in Benin from honey, as far as I know. I will inquire with some agronomers this week. Beekeeping is very new in this country. There is a national association - quite active. The honey produced is quite dark, very thick and sold in whiskey bottles (Jonnny Walker would rage at the sight of its reincarnated bottles. Cashew nuts are the second reuse of these bottles).

Regarding the Keller web site, I have gone through everything and downloaded all the chapters deemed useful.

I plan to get a large/tall graduated cylinder in the capital city in March and attempt to measure the alcohol content. I have a wine hydrometer, but the low height of the Italian bottles prevents me from getting a measure.
I also have a refractometer, but it's not useful with clear juice. I bought it for making preserves and jams - cashew apple, mangoe and pineapple.

I continue to monitor and take notes of everything I do and everything that happens in spite of what I do.

You are right. I plan to get the whole Board of directors to taste this wine, as I have had them taste the pasteurized juice and preserves, last year at this time, being cashew apple season.

I do not share the recipes I use because there are no sanitary practices in the area. Water is kept in 45-gallon petrol barrels in villages, and clean, sanitized vessels are unknown entities in the whole of West Africa, if I was to generalize.

I fear that a failed batch, which would poison or otherwise get people to become ill, could jeapardize the possible success of this endeavour. In some villages, the cashew apple is forbidden, because one child died after sucking on a few apples, also after having drank its mother breastmilk.
It wouldn't take much to kill a project given the power of anecdotes and rumours.

I hope this gives you a clear picture of everything. Thanks again for your interest and advice.

Roméo

#12 LeChaim

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Posted 26 February 2006 - 02:01 PM

Romeo,

This venture of yours is so interesting. I was under the impression that your plan was to exploit the abundance of cashew fruit to benefit the local cooperative; if that's the case, how is it possible not to share the recipe and method? Unless I'm mistaken and you're simply making the wine for your own use (nothing wrong with that!).

I buy shea butter for various cosmetic products I make. It comes from Ghana. With the profits from the shea butter, women in Ghana have brought electricity, running water, and schools to their villages. A little enterprise and business sense, (and an honest distributor) do the trick.

Thanks for sharing your notes. It sure looks like you're getting wine out of those cashew fruits. And I look forward to hearing more about honey and honey-based drinks, if you have the time to investigate that.

Romeo, what country are you from? Just plain nosy curiosity. smile.gif

Miriam
My blog, Israeli Kitchen: http://www.mimi54.wordpress.com

#13 romeo

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Posted 16 March 2006 - 02:33 PM

QUOTE (LeChaim @ Feb 26 2006, 09:33 PM)
Romeo,

This venture of yours is so interesting.  I was under the impression that your plan was to exploit the abundance of cashew fruit to benefit the local cooperative; if that's the case, how is it possible not to share the recipe and method? Unless I'm mistaken and you're simply making the wine for your own use (nothing wrong with that!).

I buy shea butter for various cosmetic products I make. It comes from Ghana. With the profits from the shea butter, women in Ghana have brought electricity, running water, and schools to their villages. A little enterprise and business sense, (and an honest distributor) do the trick.

Thanks for sharing your notes. It sure looks like you're getting wine out of those cashew fruits. And I look forward to hearing more about honey and honey-based drinks, if you have the time to investigate that.

Romeo, what country are you from? Just plain nosy curiosity.  smile.gif

Miriam


Miriam,

Yes, the plan is to get the cooperative members to benefit from this potential. The problem is that some individuals (not very cooperatively-minded and very individualistic) would want to grab the procedure for themselves. There's that first concern. The second one is the fear that some individual might try to make wine, cut corners and produce a poisonous drink that could ruin this project before it leaves the ground.

The aim, after my kitchen experiment, is to mandate a food technician to produce a wine and draft the procedure in a formal manner, so that others will be able to emulate the process, but would be coached and monitored by our cooperative. A brand would be created, a label designed and an official recognition would be obtained for this product. With the tracability issue well covered, the product would be sent to European wine dealers for tasting and eventual marketing. That's more the idea.

I'm doing this work at home, going ahead of our project, and sort of paving the way for the food specialist, or wine maker, who could come from India.

As for your final question, I'm a Canadian, French-Canadian, to be precise.

Thank you for the interest, Miriam.

Roméo Cormier

#14 LeChaim

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Posted 17 March 2006 - 06:22 AM

Romeo, again I applaud your forward thinking, and wish your project all success. I see what you mean about taking precautions against the trepidations of greedy individuals.

Thank you for replying to my nosy question: the reason I asked is because the only people I've ever met with your first name are Brazilians.

Now, how is that cashew fruit wine coming along?

Miriam
My blog, Israeli Kitchen: http://www.mimi54.wordpress.com

#15 romeo

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Posted 10 April 2006 - 08:40 AM

QUOTE (LeChaim @ Mar 17 2006, 01:54 PM)
Romeo, again I applaud your forward thinking, and wish your project all success. I see what you mean about taking precautions against the trepidations of greedy individuals.

Thank you for replying to my nosy question: the reason I asked is because the only people I've ever met with your first name are Brazilians.

Now, how is that cashew fruit wine coming along?

Miriam



Miriam,

I am at week no. 5 at this point. The 10-litre carboy (Italian wine bottle) is resting in a dark closet. I filled it to the brim and sealed the bottle with two layers of stretched plastic and elastic bands.

I am confident, at this point, that I have cashew apple wine in the ageing process. The aroma is distinctively cashew, but the alcohol level will be low - perhaps no more than 4% to 5%. Last year-end, the tropical rains did not arrive in abundance - less than 60% of rainfalls and the timing was not good. As a result, the apple were not bulging with juice, and consequently the juice had a lower sugar content.

In any case, I am hopeful to have 10 litres of cashew fruit wine to bottle, label and use to promote the product - hopefully by early September.

Cheers, Miriam.

Roméo Cormier
Oxfam Cooperant
Benin, West Africa




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